As I have been increasingly working with Enterprise Search in SharePoint 2013, I have found myself continuously re-researching specific topics. Thus, I have decided to publish this post and keep ot up to date with search content and configuration selfishly for my own reference, but if some else finds it useful - yayy! :)
Search Schema - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj219669.aspx Large article encompassing search topics such as, crawled properties, managed properties, the seach index, and the variety of settings in search.
Search Relevance - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc835623.aspx Obviously a huge topic in SharePoint search. The above link is really just a reference point to several topics.
Search Architectural Diagrams - http://www.microsoft.com/en-ca/download/details.aspx?id=30374 PDF and VSD files containing the full search architeture in SharePoint 2013 Search.
Search Dictionaies - http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/office365-sharepoint-online-enterprise-help/manage-search-dictionaries-HA103629159.aspx Information regarding company names and spelling correction dictionaries.
Company Name Extraction - http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj591605.aspx Functionality which allows administrators to provide SharePoint search with one or more company names. These can then be used as refiners to help narrow search results for users. Additionally this functionality supports both inclusion and exclusion lists.
Understanding Query Rules - http://office.microsoft.com/en-ca/sharepoint-server-help/understanding-query-rules-HA102848833.aspx Pretty self-explanatory, but contains some high-level examples.
Changing the ranking of search results in SharePoint 2013 - http://blogs.technet.com/b/tothesharepoint/archive/2013/06/25/changing-the-ranking-of-search-results-in-sharepoint-2013.aspx
SharePoint 2013 Search Guidance - http://planningservices.partners.extranet.microsoft.com/en/SDPS/SAPSDocuments/SharePoint%202013%20Search%20Guidance.docx
Building Search Queries in SharePoint 2013 - http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/jj163973(v=office.15).aspx
I'll keep updating this post as I find more useful information!